What are the Functions and Components in a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)?

A Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) features more than just the battery that stores electricity - there are multiple other functions and components in a BESS.

Power Electronic Functions

Power electronics in a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are responsible for converting the stored energy into a form that can be used by the grid or other loads. Power electronics perform several functions such as:

  • Inverter function: The inverter converts direct current (DC) from the battery into alternating current (AC) that can be used by the grid or other loads. This allows the BESS to be connected to the grid and to export energy when it is not needed by the system.
  • Charger function: The charger converts AC power from the grid into DC power that can be used to charge the battery. This allows the BESS to be connected to the grid and to import energy when it is needed by the system.
  • Power conversion and control: Power electronics control the flow of energy between the battery and the grid, and between the battery and the loads, to ensure optimal performance and safety. This includes adjusting the voltage and frequency of the power to match the requirements of the grid or other loads.
  • Harmonic filtering: Power electronics in the BESS can also have harmonic filtering functions to eliminate harmonic distortion on the grid caused by non-linear loads, this way the BESS can be connected to the grid without causing any disturbance.
  • Protection: Power electronics can provide protection to the BESS by disconnecting it from the grid in case of faults or abnormal conditions.

Examples of power electronics in a BESS include inverters, bidirectional DC-DC converters, and AC-DC-AC converters. These components work together to convert and control the energy flow between the battery, the grid, and other loads.

Functions of the Control and Management System

  • Safety: The control system monitors the BESS for any safety hazards and takes appropriate action to prevent any damage or injury.
  • Charge and discharge control: The control system manages the charging and discharging of the battery according to the needs of the grid or other loads. It ensures that the battery is not overcharged or over-discharged, which can damage the battery and reduce its lifespan.
  • Energy management: The control system manages the energy flow in and out of the BESS to ensure that the energy is used efficiently and effectively.
  • Communication: The control system communicates with other systems such as the grid operator, to receive commands and send status updates.
  • State of charge (SOC) management: The control system monitors the State of charge (SOC) of the BESS and controls the charging and discharging to maintain the SOC within a safe range.
  • Temperature management: The control system monitors the temperature of the BESS and controls the charging and discharging to maintain the temperature within a safe range.
  • Predictive maintenance: the control system monitors the status of the battery and provide alarms or alerts to the operator of the system to schedule maintenance actions before a failure occurs.

Metering and Communication Functions

Metering and communication technology in a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is responsible for measuring the energy flowing into and out of the BESS and communicating that information to the grid operator or other entities. Metering and communication technology performs several functions such as:

  • Energy measurement: Metering technology measures the energy flowing into and out of the BESS in real-time. This includes measuring the energy being charged into the battery and the energy being discharged from the battery. This information is used to determine the state of charge (SOC) of the battery and to ensure that the BESS is operating efficiently.
  • Communication: Communication technology allows the BESS to communicate with other systems such as the grid operator, to receive commands and send status updates. This allows the BESS to participate in energy markets and to provide services to the grid.
  • Remote monitoring and control: Communication technology enables remote monitoring and control of the BESS, allowing the operator to monitor the performance and status of the BESS from a remote location. This enables real-time monitoring of the system and to schedule maintenance actions when needed.
  • Data logging: Communication technology also enables data logging, allowing the operator to collect data on the performance and status of the BESS over time, for analysis, and to improve the operation of the system.

Examples of metering and communication technology in a BESS include energy meters, power quality meters, data loggers, and communication gateways. These components work together to measure and communicate the energy flow and status of the BESS to the grid operator and other entities.

From Action to Zuccess

Knowledge is Key

Achieving 100% Renewable Energy is a generational task which requires innovation and knowledge on an unprecedented level. We will get faster to 100% Renewable Energy when we as a generation share as much information as possible with each other. This is what we strive for with our School of Flex.

Flex Index

"How much money can I make with a battery?", we get asked a lot. To answer this question, we created the Flex Index, which is a transparent reference for the value of flexibility on the German power market. Check it out...

Videos & Podcasts

Nothing beats first-hand knowledge from experts. Our energy traders and engineers give insights into their job, the market environment they operate in, and what we are working on.

Flexicon

Everything you need to know about flexibility in energy markets in one place?

Written by experts for experts and beginners alike? This is what we strive for with our Flexicon.

Discover our Services

FLEXPOWER helps you to bring your portfolio to the energy market. We combine over 25 years of experience in renewables trading in our seasoned team of short-term energy traders. We manage large-scale renewable portfolios and flexible assets with our lean and fully digitized approach.